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Research and Analysis of the Competitive Environment in Different Industry Sectors
Vladimir Borisovich Kondratiev, doctor of the economic sciences, leader of the Centre industrial and investment studies of the Institute of the world economy and international relations by WOUNDS.
The Investors believe in possibility of the Russia: representatives beside 70% polled world companies consider her(its) attractive for business. Upon their opinion, the growing of the russian economy will be defined three sectors: energy, information and communication technology and car industry.
Historically concept to competitiveness is founded on theories of the use in division of labor comparative advantage of the national economy and base factor production (the cheap labour, богатые natural facility, favourable geographical, climatic, infrastructure to particularities and t. p.) for export of the product in country, where such advantage no.
The Advantage connected with base factor production, were the basis of developments industrial society. In post-industrial society to he are added and gains the most most important importance a factor research progress and innovations on all stages of the chain of the added cost from creation of goods before advancement him(it) from producer to consumer.
This does not signify, of course that base factors production forfeit its importance in process of the competitions. Their importance confirms, in particular, intensive carrying production from developed countries in developing in consequence of presence there more cheap labour, cheese and material.
That is why it is impossible oppose to base and innovation competitive advantage. The Integration that and others in one country intensifies her(its) competitiveness in global economic space.
In the second half XX v. competition has gained the new line: free competition quotient producers on initially opened market became to match in the most varied forms with competition monopolistic and oligopolistic structures on the market partly closed, including by means of protectionism; gradually occurred the shift from use basically price methods to competitions to mainly non-cost though in real economy always exists their combination.
In many events competitive fight became surplus. In this connection is formed new, more high level to competitiveness, when rivals enter in partner's relations. Creation flexible alliance, mutual exchange rival-partner by the most latest research achievements, innovations and know-how serves the mutual enrichment and intensify competitiveness of both sides.
Follows to distinguish global competitiveness of the country on world market, competitiveness of the country on national market and competitiveness on microlevel (the level of the companies) on national and world market.
In scientific study global (the intercountry) to competitiveness stand out the development of the World economic forum, which are published in his(its) annual report (The Global Competitiveness Report). In accordance with methods VEF, for each country is developed consolidated index to competitiveness, measured on base macroeconomic factors, which, in the opinion of authors, most important for economic growing and corrilate with him in medium-term and long-term prospect.
In the opinion of authors of the report, the economic growing of the country most is closely connected with her(its) openness in the world trade, quality state politicians, efficiency of the financial system, transportability market labour, level of the forming the labour, quality public institute. The Main complex factor to global competitiveness confess twelve: 1) institutes; 2) infrastructure; 3) макроэкономическая ambience; 4) public health and initial formation; 5) higher education and education; 6) efficiency goods market; 7) efficiency market of the labour; 8) development financial market; 9) technological readiness; 10) size market; 11) efficiency business.
In turn, enumerated factors are grouped in three large subindexes. The Institutes, infrastructure, macroeconomic ambience, public health and initial formation form the subindex of the base conditions. The Higher education, efficiency goods market, efficiency market labour, development financial market, technological readiness and size market form the subindex to efficiency. Finally, efficiency of the business and инновации form third, innovation subindex. On base 160 factors are first measured twelve factorial indexes, but are then defined three main subindexes, as well as the general consolidated index to competitiveness, in accordance with importances which 142 countries are distributed on rank places.
Turns attention on itself that on the general index of competitiveness VEF Russia greatly yields not only Kitayu, but also all other country BRIKS, including South Africa that causes the certain perplexity and forces more critically value used MEF methods and results of the studies.
Obviously that in estimation of global competitiveness more great role subjective factor that is seen from rank places of the countries, measured by International economic forum and International institute of management and developments (IMD, Lausanne). So, in 2011 Great britain as of MEF occupied on the general index of competitiveness 10-e place, but on estimation IMD 20-e; The Switzerland, accordingly, 1-e and 5-e, Finland 4-e and 15, Holland 7-e and 14-e, USA 1-e and 5-e, India 56-e and 32-e.
Other word, use in general array to information questionaire data presents get prettier base for factorial analysis, but different composition and structure respondent give the different results of the measurements, made on more similar methods. The Known that IMD stood beside headwaters of the functioning(working) the World economic forum and continues annually to publish own (however less раскрученный ) report World Competitiveness Yearbook .
Else more, the questions appears on cause of the rating to Russia. In report VEF she occupies, as was it already indicated, 66-e place, but in work IMD 49-e.
In functioning (working) the World economic forum is indicated that Russia in 2011 in contrast with 2010 was lowered on three positions (with 63-y on 66-yu). This fall is explained author of the report that that improvement макроэкономической to stabilities was overlapped deterioration quality institute, fall to efficiency market labour, business and инноваций. The Report notes that competition structure market controls in Russia, on which dominates the small number of the large companies, inefficient antimonopoly by policy and restrictions in trade and foreign investment. All this together does not allow the country to use such competitive advantage, as high innovation potential (38-e place in rating), big and rising size of the home market (8-e place) and comparatively high quality of the higher education (27-e place) . Obviously that enumerated negative factors acted in Russia and earlier. So not quite understandable, as they could crush the index to russian competitiveness for one year only.
But then Ukraine, in the opinion of authors of the report, for one year rose in world rating on 7 points since demonstrates the row competitive advantage. Well formed population, efficient and flexible market of the labour and big size market form get prettier base further economic and competitive growing of the country . About quality institute, the business and innovations herewith nothing be not spoken. It Is Noted that entering in VEIN will stimulate the intensive competition due to reduction trade barrier.
And quite already incomprehensibly, as african state Rwanda can occupy 8-e place in the world on efficiency labour market (Russia 65-e) and 54-e place on efficiency of the development financial market (Russia 127-e), but Senegal overtake Russia on efficiency innovations (accordingly, 53-e and 71-e place).